German grammar (complete)

If you can learn German grammar by simply memorizing word translations – why isn't learning the language easy?

Well, the reason is that each language uses different grammatical rules to build sentences. Rules are the framework that creates the structure of each sentence.

Basically, rules are a set of rules that help you communicate accurately by forming sentences in specific ways. In this article, you will discover the seven basic rules of German grammar that beginners need to know to start speaking German immediately.

German grammar (complete)
German grammar

German grammar

German sentences seem to follow a kind of mixed English grammar. So how do you know where those nouns, adverbs, adjectives, and verbs are placed?

German grammar is actually simpler than you might imagine. And by focusing your efforts on the most important rules, such as the ones you will discover in this post, you will save time and energy. And start expressing yourself in German sooner.

German verbs come in second place, most of the time

Do not worry! The placement of the verb is one of the most obvious concepts of grammar in the German language. The verb (the word related to a work) usually comes in the second position of the sentence. Take a look at the following examples.

  • Ich liebe dich.(I love you.)
  • Wir leben dort.(We live there.)
  • Er studiert Medizin.(He is studying medicine.)

As you have noticed, these sentence structures are very similar in English and German. However, when you want to ask a question, you have to move the verb to the first position.

  • Liebst du mich?(Do you love me?)
  • Lebt ihr dort?(Do you live there?)
  • Studiert er Medizin?(Does he study medicine?)

Dual verbs, detachable prefixes, correlations, and conditional verbs slightly complicate these rules. However, the rules for such cases are relatively clear.

Uppercase letters in German names

Uppercase letters in German names

You may have noticed that the last sentence is an example of the word Medizin (medicine). In German, names (words that refer to people, objects and places) are always written in capital letters. Here are more examples.

  • ch liebe Sommer.(I love summer.)
  • Wir leben in dem Haus mit meiner Mutter.(We live at home with my mother.)
  • Er studiert Medizin seit September mit seinem Brüder an der Universität.(He's been studying medicine with his brother at university since September.)

Although all nouns are written in uppercase letters, pronouns are never capitalized, unless they come at the beginning of the sentence.

There is a time, method and place for German conditions

The adverb, as you probably remember from school, are words that modify verbs, adjectives, and even other circumstances. In Arabic, often (but not always) – "quickly", "angrily", "in fact".

In a sentence, the conditions tell us how something happens, when, how often or where it happens.

The previous example – Er studiert Medizin seit September mit seinem Brüder an der Universität – shows how the order of words differs slightly in German compared to English.

In German , you always need to follow the rule of "time, method, place" when determining the order of words in the envelope.

Circumstance in German Time

  • gestern — yesterday
  • heute — today
  • immer —always
  • Manchmal — sometimes
  • morgen — tomorrow
  • morgens — morning
  • nachmittag — in the back
  • nachts /abends —in the evening
  • nie/nimmer — never
  • oft — sometimes

Rules of the adverb in German

Style circumstances indicate how something happens and include words such as:

  • allein(e) — Alone
  • eventuell — maybe
  • Freiwillig — voluntarily
  • gern(e) — gladly
  • hoffentlich — Naml
  • langsam — slowly
  • leichtsinnig — recklessly
  • lieber — better
  • natürlich — of course
  • sicherlich — sure
  • vielleicht — can
  • widerwillig — stubbornly
  • wütend — angrily
  • Zögerlich — Oppose
  • zufällig — coincidence
  • zusammen — together

Envelope in German Place

Finally, the conditions of the place describe where the procedure took place. Some examples include:

  • da/dort — here/there
  • drauβen — Abroad
  • drinnen — Inside
  • hier — here
  • irgendwo — somewhere
  • Links — North
  • nirgends — nowhere
  • oben — at the top
  • rechts — right
  • überall — everywhere
  • unten — under
  • voran — before/in a confrontation

Here are some examples of how to apply the "time, method, place" rule.

  • Ich bin oft (time) allein (way) irgendwo (place) gegangen.(I often went somewhere alone.)
  • Wir sind heute (time) zusammen (manner) hier (place). (Today we're here together.)
  • Er ist gestern (time) freiwillig (manner) drauβen (place) gegangen.(He went outside voluntarily yesterday.)

This rule does not exist in Arabic. But you will be happy to have it in German. There's no need to think about how to build your sentence. Simply follow the rule.

Questioning tools in German

German names have a genus

German names have a genus

One of the most complex grammatical concepts that native speakers of Arabic must understand is that words have gender. In German, you have three different cases to choose from: masculine, feminine and neutral.

A status system may take time to learn but follows clear grammatical rules. Be sure to learn the gender of the word, every time you add to the vocabulary of the German language.

  • Masculine – Masculine Der
  • Feminine – Die Feminine
  • Neuter – Das Neutral

Sometimes, you will have to memorize the sex of the floor. Other times, you can find out the sex from the end of the word.

The job position is also characterized by gender. Take a look at the following examples:

  • Der Lehrer (teacher)
  • Die Lehrerin (teacher)
  • Der Koch (Chef)
  • Die Köchin (chef)
  • Der Student (student)
  • Die Studentin (student)
  • Der Künstler (artist)
  • Die Künstlerin (artist)

Knowing the gender of names is necessary to formulate the rest of the German sentences. You'll also need to understand the elements of the sentence.

German has 4 cases

  • Topic – You can find the subject of the sentence by asking yourself who is doing something or what is doing it. In German, the subject takes the nominal state.
  • Direct object – A direct object is a noun or pronoun on the receiving end of the actor's work. In German, its direct effect takes the state of erection.
  • Indirect object – This sentence element is negatively affected by the action of the verb. In German, the indirect object takes the state of traction state.
  • You should also note that some German prepositions take on the status of monument, while others are always in the preposition state. In addition, some prepositions can take either case, depending on their use in the sentence.

Let's take a look at an example:

  • Ich (theme) habe meine Tante (indirect object) Blumen (direct object) geschenkt. I (subject) gifted my aunt (indirect object) flowers (direct object).

The drawing below gives an overview of German cases.

As you can see, choosing the correct translation of "the" and "a" requires some thought at first. Don't worry, even if you choose the mistake, native speakers will continue to understand you! The more you practice, with your intense exposure to German through reading and listening, the less you think about the right ending.

Name Races and Cases Determine the Ends of GradeT

As if having to choose from three different types of names was not a sufficient challenge, you also have to pay attention to the ends of the adjectives.

This is true, depending on the case, you will have to determine the appropriate end of the previous adjective. The good news is that there are direct rules to help you decide which end of the adjective to use.

Let's take a look at the scope of the possibilities.

Specified character of endings

Unspecified Attribute of Endings

Both the gender of the word and its role in the sentence determine the state and endings to be used. It sounds scary but it will become second nature, especially if you are looking for these changes as you read and listen to German.

German combination possibilities

Unlike English, you can't always mark an -s on a word to create the plural in German. The German language forms plurals in several ways. Some common plural endings are -e, -er, -en, -n, and -s.

At the bottom there are some examples.

Add an end -e to the names ending with -eur, -ich, -ii, -ig, -ling, and -ör. It adds several feminine words consisting of an -e syllable, as well as a umlaut sign.

  • Das Tier (animal) – die Tiere (animals)
  • Der Likör (mascara) – die Liköre (liqueurs)
  • Die Handdie Hände (Hands)

Add -er to most neutral single-syllable names. It may also be necessary to form a marker.

  • Das Wort (word) – die Wörter (words)
  • Der Mann (man) – die Männer (men)
  • Das Haus (Home) – die Häuser (Homes)

Add the end of -n or -en to the masculine words ending with -e, -ent, and, -ant, -ist, -or. Feminine words ending with -e, -in, -ion, -ik, -heit, -keit, -schaft, -tät, and -ung often take on this end.

  • Der Autor (author) – die Autoren (authors)
  • Die Blumedie Blumen
  • Der Vater (Father) – die Vätern (Fathers)

Add the end of -s to the words ending with -a, -i, -o, -u, and -y.

  • Das Auto (car) – die Autos
  • Das Kino (cinema) – die Kinos (cinemas)
  • Die Muttidie Muttis

As in English, some German names are the same in the singular and plural forms. In this case, the word reveals only the intended form.

For example, der Löffel (spoon) turns into die Löffel (spoons). There are also many exceptions to the above rules that you should familiarize yourself with by immersing yourself in the German language.


Learn about basic German grammar with these seven grammar

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